Historical Speeches in Character

One of the most well known South African authors and a key figure of the literary combat against apartheid has died on the sixth of February 2015 at the age of 79. André Brink died on an airplane on his way back home from Belgium, where he had received the title of an honorary doctor at the Leuven University.

André Philippus Brink was born in 1935 on the 29th of May, in Vrede, in the Free state in South Africa. He matriculated from Hoerskool Lydenburg in the city of Lydenburg where he had moved, and went on to study English, Dutch and Afrikaans in the Potchefroom University, from where he transferred to Sorbonne University in Paris, France by the 1950’s.

His stay in France opened his eyes to the horridness of the racial segregation in South Africa which had always seemed normal to him. When he returned home, he co-founded the literary movement Die Sestigers which translates to the Sixty-ers, in which he remained a key figure in the movements battle against apartheid, the systematic racial segregation practiced by the ruling white minority in South Africa that targeted the majority of other ethniticies.

Brink wrote more than twenty novels, some of which have been translated to 30 languages. His second novel Looking Into Darkness was banned by the apartheid government, which is historical because it was the first novel in Afrikaans to suffer this fate. Brink went on to translate it to English himself and published it abroad. From then on he wrote simultaneously in Afrikaans and English, drawing his inspiration from the suffering of the native African majority, both present and historical, at the hands of the European based minority.

To say that Brink was only a figure in the abolishment of apartheid in the beginning of the 1990’s would be a lie as he looked deeper than ones skin colour. Brink wrote about the suffering of women and black people at the hands of the whites, but he also wrote about the racism and violence that the white people faced after the free elections in 1994, as well as the corruption that persisted after the elections.

Brink was married six times and has a son.


Boutros Boutros-Ghali passed away April 23rd, 2015 in the age of 93. He was a very influential man in his life as an UN Secretary-General. He was the sixth Secretary-General, the top position in the UN, and one of the leading spokesmen and practicers of internationalism in the UN, which many of his younger colleagues found surprising.

Boutros Boutros-Ghali was born in Cairo November 14th, 1922. His family was one of the wealthiest ones in all of Cairo, which guaranteed him great education. He graduated Cairo University in 1946 and received a PhD in international law from the University of Paris and diploma in international relations from the Science Po in 1949, and in 1977 he was appointed Egypt’s Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, and served as such until 1991.

From 1997 to 2002, Boutros-Ghali was Secretary-General of La Francophonie, an organisation of French-speaking nations. From 2003 to 2006, he served as the chairman of the board of the South Centre, an intergovernmental research organisation of developing countries. In 2003, Boutros-Ghali was appointed Director of the Egyptian National Council of Human Rights, which he remained until Autumn 2012.

Morgan Tsvangirai, a politican, minister and human rights fighter, born in 10 March 1952 in Gutu, Southern Rhodesia, has died in a car accident yesterday, 18 May 2015. He was the prime minister of Zimbabwe from 2009 to 2013. He fighted for Zimbabwean’s rights and wanted to give the power to the people, instead of the president, who actually is a dictator.

Tsvangirai was born in Gutu, which was in Southern Rhodesia back then, in a shona family. He was the eldest of the family’s 9 children. He married his first wife Susan Mhundwa, in 1978, and got 6 children with her during their 31 year marriage. Their marriage ended when Susan died in 2009, in a car accident. He married his second wife, Elizabeth Macheka, in 2012.

In his career, he started from the bottom. For 10 years, he was working in a nickel mine. After that, he has been the prime minister for 4 years, and was also oppositing Mugabe in the presidental election in 2008. He got arrested 4 times because of his acts against Mugabe, but he still never quit fighting. He was brave, great man.

Stephen Bantu Biko (known as Steve Biko), one of the most momentous political activist in South Africa, the leader of the Black Consciousness Movement and the founding member of the South African Student Organization, died September 12th, aged 30.

Biko was born in South Africa in 1946 to a family of four, which later grew with one more member. Biko became politically active and later evolved to be one of the most significant political activist in anti-apartheid movement. Biko was a member and a leader in many movements. He was most known for being the first president of South Africa Students Organisation and the leader of Black Consciousness Movement.

Biko was banned by the apartheid regime in 1973. He was forbidden to speak or write publicly, he could only talk to a one person at a time.  In 1977 Biko and his co-worker  Peter Jones drove to meet with members of other liberation movement organizations to Cape Town. On their way back the police did a routine road block and stopped Biko and Jones. The police arrested them because Biko violated his banning order. The police also accused the two men for a terrorism act which allowed the police to arrest them in indefinite detention.

Biko became a political prisoner and he died in police detention. Biko was found chained and naked on September 11, 1977  in Pretoria, South Africa. Biko died on the following day from a brain hemorrhage. With further investigations his death has been proved to be the result of injuries he sustained while being in police custody. Biko died for his beliefs and his death caused national outcry and he became regarded as an anti-apartheid icon.

Nelson Mandela was a South African activist and the former president (1918-2013). He helped to bring an end to Apartheid, and has been a global advocate for human rights.

Nelson Mandela’s heroic status is a phenomenon. For years, he was only known in his own country, South Africa. He did not become known abroad until his first trial. Though acquitted, he remained free for a little more than a year before going to prison for 27.5 years, convicted of sabotage and promoting revolution. During his long confinement, more than 17 years of which were spent on Robben Island, a wind scorched Alcatraz off the Cape coast, little was heard of Nelson and nothing was seen of him. When he emerged from prison on February 11th 1990, no photograph of him had been published since 1964; the world had been able to only wonder what he looked like.

He was by 71 years old, and ten years of politics remained to him. Nonetheless, more than any other human, he helped during that decade to secure a conciliatory and mostly peaceful end to Apartheid (Sorting whites and blacks), one of the great abominations of the age, and an infinitely more hopeful start to a democratic South Africa.

Mandela startled ANC colleagues when, at 33, he announced that he looked forward to becoming South Africa’s first black president. Yet he did not expect rewards; even when he was a figure of world renown he was modest, and rarely took his authority for granted. In jail, he would refuse privileges if they were offered to him but not to other prisoners. He complained, for instance, about having to wear shorts, one of the ways in which the government humiliated black prisoners, but rejected the long trousers he was given-until two years later, when the authorities agreed to let his colleagues wear them too.

Nelson Mandela is a very respected man, and he deserves all his respect.

Sources: http://www.economist.com



James Thomas Jimmy Kruger

James ‘’Jimmy’’ Thomas Kruger, 69, political leader of South Africa and enforcer of apartheid, passed away on May 9th, 1987 in Irene.
He was born in Wales in 1917 and adopted by Afrikaner parents. He rose to the position of Minister of Justice in 1974 and was responsible for Steve Biko´s death, a well-known anti-apartheid activist who was murdered by apartheid enforcers. Kruger was one of the people who tried to make Biko´s death appear as suicide, as all black peoples´ deaths under police custody were called.’’We are doing absolutely everything to try to prevent people from committing suicide,” Kruger said in 1978. ”But you can understand that if a man wants to commit suicide it is very difficult to prevent it.’’ Kruger was also known for stating that Biko´s death ´´leaves him cold´´.
James Kruger was very strict about the visibility of opinions that were different or against his own theories. When Donald Woods, a South African journalist, published an article stating that Kruger should resign, Woods immediately got banned and  fled from South Africa with his family. Kruger was responsible for multiple mass arrests and closing schools, since he saw allowing students to have a mutual place to meet as a threat to the government.
When the South African government eventually began investigating Steve Biko´s death, they confirmed that it was in fact caused by violence that lead to brain damage. This resulted to Kruger retiring from politics in 1980. He spent the rest of his life near his home town and passed away after recently undergoing heart surgery.

James Thomas Kruger is survived by his wife Susan Kruger, a novelist, and their two sons.

Robert Mugabe was born in 21 February 1924 and passed away  10 July 2006. Mugabe was born in southern Rhodesia to Malawian father and Zimbabwen mother. He was third of the six children. He is roman catholic and also highly educatied. He had many degrees from different universities and he also studied in university of London. Mugabe was president of Zimbabwe for almost 30 years before he passed away. Before Mugabe become president he was a prime minister. In 1960 he was leader of ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) and after Zimbabwe got independence in 1980 he was also leader of ZANU PF.  Before Mugabe became a president he was in prison for 10 years, and he studied in there, and when he finally got out of the prison in 1973 he left from Zimbabwe to Mosambique and therefor he became leader of ZANU. ZANU was organization that Mugabe was leading, and  they were in civil war with the white apartheid government.  In 2008 Mugabe suffered a narrow defeat in president election. But in some way he won the election.  Being twenty-seven years as president Mugabe changed a lot. In he’s first years  Mugabe tried to make changes. Racism was the main thing that he was fighting for and that black people would have the same equal rights. But over the time Mugabe got worst. He notice the power that he got . The politic that he was driving was brutal. White people in Zimbabwen live in hell because of Mugabe, either black people don’t have the rights that he first promised. People dont like the politic that his driving and they accuced that Zimbabwen economic is getting worst because of him. Mugabe was married to women named Sally Hayfron for 31 years and then other women named Grace Marufu for 10 years before he passed away. Mugabe had 4 children and he’s oldest daughter got married recently.


Next Page »